Eisenhower Foreign Policy






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March 26, 2010

Dwight D. Eisenhower

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general-dwight-d-eisenhower

Introduction

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Dwight D. Eisenhower was inaugurated president in 1953.  Eisenhower’s main interest was for world peace, a peace based on democracy, capitalism, and strong international cooperation. Communism seemed to subvert these requirements of peace. Eisenhower therefore sought, even more so than Truman, to contain the spreading influence of communism as described in thedomino theory: once one nation fell to the power of communism, the surrounding countries were weakened and likely would also fall. This fear was the force behind his primary foreign policy decisions. To contain communism, Eisenhower proposed the threat of massive retaliation to force the Soviets to retreat. To accomplish this, the military shifted to focusing on long-range bombers and nuclear warheads. When this much display of force seemed unnecessary, Eisenhower decided between CIA covert operations or mutual security agreements as the best response. Despite this focus on intimidating the Soviet Union and forcing its retreat, Eisenhower continued many of the ideals of his predecessors by attempting to work towards international control of nuclear power and discouraging the continuation of colonialism.

Eisenhower Quote 1

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“Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed. This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. This is not a way of life at all in any true sense. Under the cloud of threatening war, it is humanity hanging from a cross of iron.”

-Eisenhower

1)     Assess the extent to which perceived Soviet aggression justified Eisenhower’s military expansion focused on the newer technology of long-range aircraft and colossal nuclear weapons.

2)     Eisenhower resolved international “hot spots” in differing methods based on the precise circumstances surrounding the situation.  Hypothesize the primary criteria Eisenhower used to decide how he would respond to an international concern.

3)     Determine how committed the Soviet Union was in securing is position as a dominant world power.

4)     Justify Eisenhower’s responses to specific ”hot spots” of apparent communist aggression based on the extent of communist determination in securing is its position as the dominant world ideology.

5)     Identify Eisenhower’s primary purposes for continuing research on atomic energy.

Determine the extent to which Eisenhower was responsible for the US-USSR antagonism.

Eisenhower Quote 2

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“Now all of us deplore this vast military spending. Yet, in the face of the Soviet attitude, we realize its necessity. Whatever the cost, America will keep itself secure.   But in the process we must not, by our own hand, destroy or distort the American system. This we could do by useless overspending. I know one sure way to overspend. That is by overindulging sentimental attachments to outmoded military machines and concepts.”

-Eisenhower

1)     Assess the extent to which perceived Soviet aggression justified Eisenhower’s military expansion focused on the newer technology of long-range aircraft and colossal nuclear weapons.

2)     Eisenhower resolved international “hot spots” in differing methods based on the precise circumstances surrounding the situation.  Hypothesize the primary criteria Eisenhower used to decide how he would respond to an international concern.

3)     Determine how committed the Soviet Union was in securing is position as a dominant world power.

4)     Justify Eisenhower’s responses to specific ”hot spots” of apparent communist aggression based on the extent of communist determination in securing is its position as the dominant world ideology.

5)     Identify Eisenhower’s primary purposes for continuing research on atomic energy.

6)     Determine the extent to which Eisenhower was responsible for the US-USSR antagonism.

Dulle Quote

Filed under: Eisenhower @ 2:13 am

“The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art. If you try to run away from it, if you are scared to go to the brink, you are lost.”

John Foster Dulles

1)     Assess the extent to which perceived Soviet aggression justified Eisenhower’s military expansion focused on the newer technology of long-range aircraft and colossal nuclear weapons.

2)     Eisenhower resolved international “hot spots” in differing methods based on the precise circumstances surrounding the situation.  Hypothesize the primary criteria Eisenhower used to decide how he would respond to an international concern.

3)     Identify Eisenhower’s primary purposes for continuing research on atomic energy.

Determine the extent to which Eisenhower was responsible for the US-USSR antagonism

Nikita Khrushchev Quote

Filed under: Eisenhower @ 2:13 am

“Whether you like it or not, history is on our side. We will bury you!”

Nikita Khrushchev

1)     Assess the extent to which perceived Soviet aggression justified Eisenhower’s military expansion focused on the newer technology of long-range aircraft and colossal nuclear weapons.

2)     Determine how committed the Soviet Union was in securing is position as a dominant world power.

3)     Justify Eisenhower’s responses to specific ”hot spots” of apparent communist aggression based on the extent of communist determination in securing is its position as the dominant world ideology.

4)    Determine the extent to which Eisenhower was responsible for the US-USSR antagonism

5)    Discuss the different interpretation of this quote in America.

Domino Theory

Filed under: Eisenhower @ 2:12 am

Domino Theory

1)     Assess the extent to which perceived Soviet aggression justified Eisenhower’s military expansion focused on the newer technology of long-range aircraft and colossal nuclear weapons.

2)     Eisenhower resolved international “hot spots” in differing methods based on the precise circumstances surrounding the situation.  Hypothesize the primary criteria Eisenhower used to decide how he would respond to an international concern.

3)     Justify Eisenhower’s responses to specific ”hot spots” of apparent communist aggression based on the extent of communist determination in securing is its position as the dominant world ideology.

4)     Identify Eisenhower’s primary purposes for continuing research on atomic energy.

5)     To what extent was Eisenhower’s foreign policy committed to the ideals of democracy and self-determination and to what extent did Eisenhower primarily wish to support his allies.

6)     Determine the extent to which Eisenhower was responsible for the US-Chinese antagonism.

7)     Identify the relative importance of Western Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia in the US’s efforts to contain communism.

8)   Describe the predicament the United States became involved in by attempting to contain Vietnamese communism.

B-52s and U-2 Spy Plane

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B52s

B-52s

1)     Assess the extent to which perceived Soviet aggression justified Eisenhower’s military expansion focused on the newer technology of long-range aircraft and colossal nuclear weapons.

2)     Identify Eisenhower’s primary purposes for continuing research on atomic energy.

Determine the extent to which Eisenhower was responsible for the US-USSR antagonism

3)   Describe Eisenhower’s plan for dealing with an act of Soviet aggression.

U-2 spy plane

U-2 spy plane

1)     Assess the extent to which perceived Soviet aggression justified Eisenhower’s military expansion focused on the newer technology of long-range aircraft and colossal nuclear weapons.

2)     Eisenhower resolved international “hot spots” in differing methods based on the precise circumstances surrounding the situation.  Hypothesize the primary criteria Eisenhower used to decide how he would respond to an international concern.

3)     Identify Eisenhower’s primary purposes for continuing research on atomic energy.

Determine the extent to which Eisenhower was responsible for the US-USSR antagonism.

Military Alliances

Filed under: Eisenhower @ 2:05 am

Alliances

Military alliances (blue is NATO, red is Warsaw Pact)

1)     Assess the extent to which perceived Soviet aggression justified Eisenhower’s military expansion focused on the newer technology of long-range aircraft and colossal nuclear weapons.

2)     Eisenhower resolved international “hot spots” in differing methods based on the precise circumstances surrounding the situation.  Hypothesize the primary criteria Eisenhower used to decide how he would respond to an international concern.

3)     Determine how committed the Soviet Union was in securing is position as a dominant world power.

4)     Justify Eisenhower’s responses to specific ”hot spots” of apparent communist aggression based on the extent of communist determination in securing is its position as the dominant world ideology.

5)     Identify Eisenhower’s primary purposes for continuing research on atomic energy.

6)     To what extent was Eisenhower’s foreign policy committed to the ideals of democracy and self-determination and to what extent did Eisenhower primarily wish to support his allies.

7)     Determine the extent to which Eisenhower was responsible for the US-USSR antagonism.

8)     Identify the relative importance of Western Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia in the US’s efforts to contain communism.

Atoms for Peace Speech

Filed under: Eisenhower @ 2:04 am

President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” Speech

December 8, 1953

The United States would be more than willing–it would be proud to take up with others “principally involved: the development of plans where by such peaceful use of atomic energy would be expedited.

Of those “principally involved” the Soviet Union must, of course, be one.

I would be prepared to submit to the Congress of the United States , and with every expectation of approval, any such plan that would:

First–encourage world-wide investigation into the most effective peace time uses of fissionable material, and with the certainty that they had all the material needed for the conduct of all experiments that were appropriate;

Second–begin to diminish the potential destructive power of the world’s atomic stockpiles;

Third–allow all peoples of all nations to see that, in this enlightened age, the great powers of the earth, both of the East and of the West, are interested in human aspirations first, rather than in building up the armaments of war;

Fourth–open up a new channel for peaceful discussion, and initiate at least a new approach to the many difficult problems that must be solved in both private and public conversations, if the world is to shake off the inertia imposed by fear, and is to make positive progress toward peace.

Against the dark background of the atomic bomb, the United Stats does not wish merely to present strength, but also the desire and the hope for peace.

1)     Identify Eisenhower’s primary purposes for continuing research on atomic energy.

2)     Determine the extent to which Eisenhower was responsible for the US-USSR antagonism.

3)     To what extent did Eisenhower’s speech to the United Nations really represent his opinion on nuclear energy?

4)   To what extent does this speech contrast with Eisenhower’s policy of massive retaliation?

Eisenhower_UN

Eisenhower’s Atoms for Peace address, 1953

1)     Identify Eisenhower’s primary purposes for continuing research on atomic energy.

2)     Determine the extent to which Eisenhower was responsible for the US-USSR antagonism.

3)     To what extent did Eisenhower’s speech to the United Nations really represent his opinion on nuclear energy?

4)   To what extent does this speech contrast with Eisenhower’s policy of massive retaliation?

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